In recent years, the transfer of the population of the nascent generation to age groups that generally show low participation in the labor force has contributed to the decline in the overall participation rate. Work is essential to support essential government services, such as national defense and the justice system. It is also fundamental to human flourishing, as it determines people's incomes and total economic output, and is a central component of people's meaning and satisfaction in life. That's why the recent decline in labor force participation in the United States is so worrisome.
After having declined steadily over the past two decades from a peak of 67.3 per cent in early 2000, the United States, the labor force participation rate plummeted and has not yet fully recovered since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the decline in labor force participation is not just due to older Americans hanging up their work hats a few years earlier. Current economic policies and government jobless welfare programs are holding back labor force participation. Thomas Spoehr, the author of a report on this issue, explains: “The shortage of personnel in the United States military directly compromises national security.” On top of that, the longer lawmakers continue to expand the size and reach of government and the national debt, a declining workforce could become a vicious cycle.
For example, benefit programs have grown so much that current workers pay 100% of Social Security and Medicare benefits to current retirees, including interest payments on previous loans from those programs. However, the more the government increases taxes to increase benefits for non-working Americans, the fewer people will work. Most importantly, Arthur Brooks, professor at Harvard University and former president of the American Enterprise Institute, has explained that success achieved through work is the secret to human happiness and dignity. That's why, regardless of their salary, people who feel productive at work are five times more likely to be satisfied at work than those who don't feel productive.
To understand how the aging of the population affects overall participation in the labor force, it is useful to look at the participation rates of different age groups. Maximizing the labor force participation rate in and of itself is not a public policy objective; for example, young people may choose to attend school, middle-aged parents may choose to care for their children, or older people may choose to retire. Several policies would have the benefit, or even the goal, of increasing the labor force participation rate. So how could it decline when the economy was booming and the labor force participation rates of the working-age population were increasing in all age categories? An additional study will examine whether these people who are retiring are long-term unemployed and may be losing their attachment to the labor market.
When the economy is booming, the labor force participation rate increases and often exceeds the expected long-term trend and, during recessions, the participation rate falls below the trend, as non-participators are less likely to enter the workforce and unemployed (who always show a greater tendency to leave) increase compared to employees (Elsby et al.). Encouraging young people's attachment to the workforce can increase their participation profile throughout life. For this reason, policy makers should recognize the value and rewards of working in their policies by protecting individuals' rights to do what works best for them and eliminating double taxation on investments. Additionally, welfare programs should be directed towards work instead of making people drift into dependency.
This way more people can achieve their potential and obtain essential items such as food and housing while also encouraging innovation.